Friday, 28 October 2011

Celtic Orthodox Brittany

Celtic Orthodox Church

The Story and History of Saint Palladius of the Scots

The story and history of Saint Palladius of the Scots. The name of Palladius shows this Saint to have been a Roman, and most authors agree that he was deacon of the Church of Rome. At least St. Prosper, in his chronicle, informs us that when Agricola, a noted Pelagian, had corrupted the churches of Britain by introducing that pestilential heresy, Pope Celestine, at the instance of Palladius the deacon, in 429, sent thither St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, in quality of his legate, who, having ejected the heretics, brought back the Britons to the Orthodox faith. In 431 Pope Celestine sent Palladius, the first bishop, to the Scots then believing in Christ. The Irish writers of the lives of St. Patrick say that St. Palladius had preached in Ireland a little before St. Patrick, but that he was soon banished by the King of Leinster, and returned to North Britain, where he had first opened his mission. There seems to be no doubt that he was sent to the whole nation of the Scots, several colonies of whom had passed from Ireland into North Britain, and possessed themselves of part of the country since called Scotland. After St. Palladius had left Ireland, he arrived among the Scots in North Britain, according to St. Prosper, in the consulate of Bassus and Antochius, in the year of Christ 431. He preached there with great zeal, and formed a considerable Church. The Scottish historians tell us that the Faith was planted in North Britain about the year 200, in the time of King Donald, when Victor was Pope of Rome. But they all acknowledge that Palladius was the first bishop in that country, and style him their first apostle. The Saint died at Fordun, fifteen miles from Aberdeen, about the year 450.
Feast Day of Saint Palladius of the Scots
The Feast Day of Saint Palladius of the Scots is July 6. The origin of Feast Days: most saints have specially designated feast days and are associated with a specific day of the year and these are referred to as the saint's feast day. The feast days first arose from the very early Christian custom of the annual commemoration of martyrs on the dates of their deaths at the same time celebrating their birth into heaven.

Saint Patrick

Patrick, called the Apostle of Ireland, was born about the year 389, of Roman and British parentage. Blessed Martin of Tours is said to have been among his kin. But although he is usually accounted as British, the place of this birth is unknown. When Patrick was a lad he was taken prisoner by slavers and carried to Ireland, whence he escaped after six years. Meanwhile he learned to serve God well, for whilst attending the flock of his master he would rise before the light, in snow and frost and rain, to make his prayers.
Having been finally raised to the priesthood, Saint Germanus of Auxierre consecrated him bishop, and
sent him back to Ireland, in succession to Saint Palladius, the first Christian missionary, who, after twelve months of labour there, had gone to Scotland and then died. Patrick travelled to every part of Ireland, converting many of the people and their chiefs by his preaching and example. And everywhere his preaching of the Word was confirmed by wonders and signs following. He washed many of the Irish folk in the laver of regeneration, ordained many bishops and clerks, and decreed rules for virgins and for widows living in continency. And he established Armagh as the primatial See of all Ireland.
Besides that which came upon him daily, the care of all the churches of Ireland, he never suffered his spirit to weary in constant prayer. It was said that it was his custom to repeat daily the whole Book of Psalms, together with certain other hymns and prayers, and that he took his short rest lying of a bare stone. He was a great practicer of lowliness, and after the pattern of the Apostle, always continued to work with his own hands. At last he fell asleep in the Lord in extreme old age, according to some authorities about the year 461, glorious both in word and deed. His body was translated to the Cathedral of Down in Ulster in 1185.

Άγιος Παλλάδιος (Palladius) απόστολος της Σκοτίας.

Ό άγιος Παλλάδιος ήταν κελτικής καταγωγής και υπηρετούσε ως διάκονος στη Ρώμη.

Ο πάπας Κελεστίνος Α' (422-432), εκτιμώντας τις ικανότητές του, τον προσέλαβε ως αρχιδιάκονό του.

Ο αιρετικός Αγρικόλας, ένας από τούς κορυφαίους πελαγιανιστές, είχε αναστατώσει τότε με τα ψυχοφθόρα κηρύγματά του την Εκκλησία των Βρετανικών Νήσων.

Ο άγιος Παλλάδιος έπεισε τον πάπα να στείλει εκεί, το 429, τους αγίους επισκόπους Γερμανό της Ωξέρ και Λούπο της Τρουά, οι οποίοι κατόρθωσαν να εξαφανίσουν την αίρεση με τη συστηματική και επίμονη ιεραποστολή τους.

Το 431, δύο χρόνια μετά την άνοδο του Λόουνγκαιρ στο θρόνο του «υπέρτατου βασιλιά» της Ιρλανδίας -που λεγόταν τότε Σκότια- ο πάπας έστειλε τον άγιο Παλλάδιο στην όμορφη νησιωτική αυτή χώρα της Β. Ευρώπης ως πρώτο επίσκοπο της, για να κηρύξει το ευαγγέλιο και να θεμελιώσει την τοπική Εκκλησία.

Ο άγιος αποβιβάσθηκε στο Λάινστερ με δώδεκα συνοδούς, που θα τον βοηθούσαν στο ιεραποστολικό του έργο. Δυστυχώς όμως, δεν μπόρεσε να μείνει εκεί για πολύ.

Στα τέλη του ίδιου χρόνου αναγκάστηκε να εγκαταλείψει το νησί, διωγμένος από τον ηγεμόνα Ντάθι. Πρόλαβε ωστόσο, να βαπτίσει ευάριθμους Σκώτους (Ιρλανδούς) και να κατασκευάσει με τους συνεργάτες του τρεις ξύλινους ναούς.

Φεύγοντας, άφησε πίσω του τέσσερις από τούς δώδεκα συντρόφους του (Αυγουστίνο, Βενέδικτο, Σίλβεστρο και Σολίνο), τα χειρόγραφά του, καθώς και τεμάχια αγίων λειψάνων.

Τον ευαγγελισμό της χώρας πραγματοποίησε αργότερα, κάτω από ευνοϊκές συνθήκες, ο κατεξοχήν απόστολος της Ιρλανδίας άγιος Πατρίκιος (+ 461).

Ο άγιος Παλλάδιος στράφηκε προς τις βόρειες επαρχίες της Βρετανίας, όπου ζούσαν πολλοί Σκώτοι (Ιρλανδοί) μετανάστες και η ημιάγρια φυλή των Πικτών. Στην περιοχή αυτή, τη γνωστή και σήμερα ως Σκοτία, κήρυξε την ευαγγελική αλήθεια για δεκαεννέα ολόκληρα χρόνια.

Και ήταν τέτοια η επιτυχία του, ώστε, μολονότι ο χριστιανισμός είχε φτάσει εκεί από τον 2ο αι., η τοπική παράδοση θεωρεί ως απόστολο και πρώτο επίσκοπο Σκοτίας τον άγιο Παλλάδιο.

Απεβίωσε ειρηνικά το 450 και η μνήμη του τιμάται στις 6 Ιουλίου.

Wednesday, 26 October 2011


The precise date of his birth is unknown; however, Columban was born around 540 AD (some suggest 559) in Ireland, to a noble family.  He received a good classical education and decided early, although the pretty Irish girls were not without some attraction to him, to embrace the ascetic life.

Columban learned how to read the psalter at the age of six.  His ability to tame animals revealed his closeness to nature. As a young man he would often visit a recluse whose wisdom he appreciated.  This was what determined his vocation.  He decided to embrace the religious life. He walked to the Abbey at Cluaninis where he was under the tutelage of the Abbot Sinell.  Later, he went to Bangor, in Northern Ireland under Abbot Congall. Columban delighted in the severity of the daily offices and in the innumerable ascetic exercises, like fasting totally for several days, praying with arms outstretched in cold water…he was called to the priesthood before leaving, with twelve monks, to evangelise the pagan regions of Gaul. The faith was there but greatly ignored and the country was constantly torn by war. Sigbert gave them authority to found a monastery at Annegray which was soon engulfed by people seeking healings and asking for the brothers' prayers.  A chorus of praise celebrated Columban. Desiring to escape the popularity, he found a cave like place for retreat. As it was already inhabited by a bear, he simple asked it to go.

His disciples were becoming numerous, Columban therefore searched for a new foundation. He discovered Luxeuil some miles away. The monks created a place to mirror the monastery at Bangor.  The novices flowed, it was necessary to create a new foundation for them.  Columban chose a rich terrain, full of sources, which he named Fountaines.  One day a contagious malady struck the monks of Luxeuil.  Columban visited the sick and ordered them to rise and go thresh the wheat. All who obeyed were cured, but the disobedient struggled for a year in pain. Columban directed three abbeys: Annegray, Luxeuil and Fontaines, where, together, three hundred monks lived.  The king Theodebert asked him to evangelise the countries of the Rhine. Having arrived at Bale, the monk Urcisin was despatched from the community and later founded the Abbey of Saint Ursanne in the Jura. Expelled by the Celts, driven out of Tuggen, the community then headed East, to Austria, and settled at Bregenz.

After the death of king Theodebert, the country became dangerous. Columban resolved to leave for Bregenz, and took the shortest route to Italy.  Only Gall, suffering from fever, wished to remain.  Columba authorised this but forbade him from saying Mass. Therefore, he left Gall in Switzerland.  Overcoming many obstacles in the Alps, he settled at Bobbio, near Milan. He rebuilt the ruins, cleared the undergrowth and prepared the ground. In spite of age and fatigue, Columban worked and heaven rewarded his courage.

Overcome with infirmities, spent and tired, he died on the 23rd of November, 615 at Bobbio, surrounded by his monks, at the age of 75. Many of his disciples founded monasteries which covered Europe.

Saint Columban’s feast day is November 23rd

Άγιος Κολουμβάνος (Columbanus), απόστολος της Γαλλίας

Ό Άγιος Κολουμβάνος γεννήθηκε το 543 στο Λάινστερ της Ιρλανδίας από γονείς ευγενείς, που του έδωσαν αξιόλογη κλασική παιδεία. Πολύ νωρίς πόθησε τη μοναχική πολιτεία, από την οποία όμως τον κρατούσαν μακριά οι νεανικοί πειρασμοί. Η εξαιρετική ομορφιά του, έκανε πολλές νέες να τον ερωτεύονται παράφορα. Ζήτησε τη συμβουλή μίας ηλικιωμένης ασκήτριας, που τον παρακίνησε ν' απαρνηθεί την πατρίδα του και τα εγκόσμια.

«Φύγε και σώσου», του είπε λακωνικά.

Κι εκείνος πραγματικά έφυγε, παρά τις αντιρρήσεις της μητέρας του, που δοκίμασε να τον εμποδίσει.

Ύστερ' από σύντομη παραμονή στη μονή Κλουάινινις του Λούφερν, πήγε στο περίφημο μοναστήρι Μπαγκόρ του Καρρικφέργκως, μεγάλο εκπαιδευτικό και ιεραποστολικό κέντρο, όπου μαθήτευσε στο διάσημο ηγούμενο άγιο Κογγάλλο (+ 602).

Το 590, φλεγόμενος από τον πόθο της ιεραποστολής, αναχώρησε με δώδεκα ακόμη μοναχούς για την Ευρώπη. Πέρασε τη Βρετανία και ήρθε στη Γαλλία, χώρα με χριστιανική παρουσία ήδη, αλλά, λόγω των πολεμικών αναστατώσεων και της ολιγωρίας του ανώτερου κλήρου, σε κατάσταση πνευματικής καταπτώσεως και εκκλησιαστικής αταξίας

Για πολλά χρόνια αφοσιώθηκε στο ευαγγελικό έργο.

Διατρέχοντας τη χώρα απ' άκρη σ' άκρη, κήρυσσε την πίστη, καλούσε σε μετάνοια, δίδασκε την αρετή, έδινε με τη ζωή του το παράδειγμα της ταπεινοφροσύνης, της αγάπης, της φιλανθρωπίας και της καλοσύνης.

Στην Ιερή αυτή διακονία τον ακολουθούσαν και τον βοηθούσαν οι δώδεκα σύντροφοι του.

Σε μιαν από τις αλλεπάλληλες αποστολικές περιοδείες του, έφτασε και στη Βουργουνδία, όπου έγινε δεκτός από το βασιλιά Γκοντράν (+ 593).

Η αγιότητα και η ευγλωττία του, σαγήνευσαν το μονάρχη, που του πρόσφερε το ρωμαϊκό κάστρο του Αννεγκραί για να το μετατρέψει σε μοναστήρι. Έτσι η μικρή αδελφότητα του αγίου εγκαταστάθηκε εκεί, ζώντας με πτώχεια, εγκράτεια και προσευχή.
Η ραγδαία αύξηση των μοναχών έκανε σύντομα αναγκαία την αναζήτηση άλλου τόπου. Ο Γκοντράν παραχώρησε στον άγιο το ευρύχωρο φρούριο του Λουξέγ, όπου πλήθη Φράγκων και Βουργουνδών, όλων των τάξεων και των ηλικιών, συνέρεαν είτε για ν' απολαύσουν τις ψυχωφελείς διδαχές του ηγουμένου Κολουμβάνου, είτε για να ενταχθούν στο κοινόβιό του.

Είκοσι χρόνια φώτιζε πνευματικά ο Άγιος τους μοναχούς και τους κοσμικούς, όχι μόνο της Βουργουνδίας αλλά και ολόκληρης της Γαλλίας, επιτελώντας ένα αξιοθαύμαστο εποικοδομητικό έργο.

Όπως αναφέρεται χαρακτηριστικά στο συναξάρι του,

«θεμελίωσε τη συνείδηση της Ευρώπης...

σε όποιον τόπο πήγε, έκανε να βλαστήσει η αληθινή αγιότητα...

άναψε το πυρ του Χριστού όπου μπορούσε, αδιαφορώντας αν θα καιγόταν ο ίδιος από τη φλόγα...».

Και πράγματι, τα φλογερά κηρύγματά του, ελεγκτικά κάποτε των παρεκτροπών κάποιων ασυνείδητων ρασοφόρων, δυσαρέστησαν μια μερίδα του τοπικού κλήρου.

Θέλοντας να τον εκδικηθούν και μη βρίσκοντας άλλη αφορμή, τον κατηγόρησαν για το ότι ακολουθούσε το κελτικό τυπικό στον εορτασμό του Πάσχα και στη μοναχική αμφίεση.

Ο Άγιος Κολουμβάνος απολογήθηκε με επιστολές, τόσο προς τη σύνοδο των Γάλλων επισκόπων (Σεν, 601) όσο και προς τον πάπα Ρώμης άγιο Γρηγόριο το Μέγα (590-604), υποστηρίζοντας τις θέσεις του με την επίκληση της παλαιάς δυτικής (ιρλανδικής) πράξης και του αγίου Ανατολίου Λαοδικείας (+ 282), συγγραφέα πραγματείας για το Πάσχα.

Στη συνέχεια γνώρισε τον κατατρεγμό και από την κοσμική εξουσία.

Ακέραιος καθώς ήταν, προκάλεσε το μίσος της διεφθαρμένης βασίλισσας Βρουγχίλδης, χήρας και μητέρας αντίστοιχα των βασιλέων της Αυστραλίας (Ανατ. Γαλλίας) Σιγεβέρτου Α' (+ 575) και Χιλδεβέρτου Β' (+ 596).

Η Βρουγχίλδη, είχε την κηδεμονία των δύο ανήλικων εγγονών της, βασιλέων της Αυστραλίας Θεοδεβέρτου Β' (γενν. 586) και της Βουργουνδίας Θεοδώριχου Β' (γενν. 587) και κατοικούσε στα ανάκτορα του πρώτου.

Όταν η σκανδαλώδης ανάμειξή της στη διακυβέρνηση της χώρας ανάγκασε τους άρχοντες να απαιτήσουν από τον νεαρό βασιλιά την απομάκρυνσή της, εκείνη κατέφυγε στον άλλο εγγονό της (599).

Στη Βουργουνδιανή Αυλή, η φίλαρχη και αδίσταχτη γυναίκα χρησιμοποίησε κάθε αθέμιτο μέσο για να πάρει στα χέρια της την εξουσία. Εξώθησε τον ευάλωτο Θεοδώριχο σε ακόλαστη ζωή, ματαίωσε τον νόμιμο γάμο του με μια Βησιγοτθίδα πριγκίπισσα κι έβαλε κακοποιούς να δολοφονήσουν τον άγιο Δεσιδέριο, επίσκοπο της Βιέν, που αποδοκίμαζε τις ανομίες της.
Στόχος της οργής της έγινε και ο άγιος Κολουμβάνος, όταν αρνήθηκε να ευλογήσει τους τέσσερις γιους, που ο εγγονός της είχε αποκτήσει με παλλακίδες.

«Αυτά τα παιδιά είναι καρποί της αμαρτίας!», είπε.

«Όχι μόνο δεν θα βασιλέψουν ποτέ, αλλά θα έχουν και κακό θάνατο σύντομα», πρόσθεσε προφητικά, απαγορεύοντας άφοβα στη βασιλομάμμη να μπει στη μονή του.

Ύστερ' από λίγο, στρατιώτες συνέλαβαν τον άγιο και όλους τους Ιρλανδούς μοναχούς του. Τους επιβίβασαν με τη βία σ' ένα πλοίο, που σάλπαρε αμέσως με προορισμό την Ιρλανδία. Το ταξίδι όμως ήταν προβληματικό και το σκάφος κινδύνεψε να ναυαγήσει. Οι δεισιδαίμονες ναυτικοί, αποδίδοντας τον κίνδυνο στην παρουσία των μοναχών, τους αποβίβασαν σε μια γαλλική ακτή, απ' όπου κατέφυγαν στη Νευστρία (Δυτ. Γαλλία).

Ό βασιλιάς τής χώρας Κλοτάριος Β' (584-628), εχθρός του Θεοδώριχου και της Βρουγχίλδης, τους δέχτηκε φιλόφρονα και τους έστειλε με συνοδεία στο μονάρχη της Αυστρασίας Θεοδεβέρτο, που τους πρόσφερε την προστασία του και τους παρακάλεσε να εγκατασταθούν στην επικράτειά του. Ο Άγιος Κολουμβάνος όμως «μετά από μάταιες προσπάθειες τόσων χρόνων για τη διόρθωση βασιλέων και υπηκόων που ήθελαν να λέγονται χριστιανοί χωρίς όμως να ζουν χριστιανικά, αποφάσισε να στρέψει το ιεραποστολικό του ενδιαφέρον στους ειδωλολάτρες.
Κατευθύνθηκε λοιπόν με τους μαθητές του προς την Ελβετία.

Εκεί κήρυξαν το ευαγγέλιο στις παγανιστικές φυλές της περιοχής της Κωνσταντίας.

Στο μεταξύ ξέσπασε πόλεμος ανάμεσα στους αδελφούς Θεοδεβέρτο της Αυστρασίας και Θεοδώριχο της Βουργουνδίας, με υποκίνηση της δαιμόνιας γιαγιάς τους.

Ο δεύτερος νίκησε τον πρώτο δυο φορές, στην Τούλη και στο Τολβίακο, τον αιχμαλώτισε και τον παρέδωσε στη Βρουγχίλδη (612). Εκείνη, για να εκδικηθεί τον εγγονό της, που την είχε διώξει δεκατρία χρόνια πριν από το παλάτι του, τον έκειρε με τη βία μοναχό -η κούρα ήταν για τους Φράγκους ηγεμόνες η έσχατη ταπείνωση(!!)- και τον έκλεισε στο φρούριο του Σαλόν-σύρ-Σέν, όπου τον θανάτωσε λίγο αργότερα.

Ο Άγιος Κολουμβάνος, που οι ανάγκες της ιεραποστολής τον είχαν φέρει κοντά στις κατεχόμενες πια από τον Θεοδώριχο περιοχές, βρέθηκε σε κίνδυνο. Αναγκάστηκε, λοιπόν, να αναχωρήσει με το μαθητή του Άτταλο για την Ιταλία. Πέρασαν τις Άλπεις κι έφτασαν στο Μιλάνο, όπου ο βασιλιάς των Λομβαρδών Αγιλούλφος (590-615) τους δέχτηκε εγκάρδια και τους παραχώρησε την περιοχή του Μπόμπιο, στα Απέννινα, για την ίδρυση μονής.

Εκεί έζησε ο Άγιος τα τελευταία του χρόνια, οικοδομώντας το μοναστήρι του και πολεμώντας με τα πειστικά κηρύγματά του την αίρεση του αρειανισμού, που είχε μολύνει τον λομβαρδικό λαό.

Κοιμήθηκε ειρηνικά στις 21 Νοεμβρίου του 615 και τάφηκε στο Μπόμπιο.

Στο μνήμα του έγιναν πολλά θαύματα.

Αξίζει να σημειωθεί ότι λίγο νωρίτερα, το 613, ο Θεοδώριχος πέθανε στο Μέτς δηλητηριασμένος από την εγκληματική Βρουγχίλδη. Κι εκείνη, όμως, έπεσε στα χέρια του εχθρού της Κλοτάριου Β' της Νευστρίας, που τη θανάτωσε με φρικτά βασανιστήρια, αφού πρώτα έσφαξε τους τέσσερις γιους του Θεοδώριχου και δισέγγονους της.

Έτσι επαληθεύτηκε η προφητεία του αγίου Κολουμβάνου.

Sunday, 23 October 2011

St. David of Wales (Dewi Sant)

by Fr. Gregory Hallam

St. David
On a recent trip to Wales, I was, on occasion overcome with a profound sadness. Where was God now in this fair land of green clad hills and ancient springs? I suppose I meant, where was God in the culture? - for He was everywhere to be seen in the landscape. In human terms though there was a curious vacancy, a sense of a time long forgotten, or as Peter Berger once said “a rumour of angels” - now barely heard. There were of course churches and chapels a-plenty to be seen, but they seemed to be caught in a time warp and others were ruinous and effectively abandoned.

The churches in rural mid-Wales are pretty, compact, well maintained on the whole. They seem nonetheless to suffer from a certain cultural disconnection, except that is when hosting concerts for the tourists in tourist areas!  Does God still matter though to the Welsh? The chapels have fared even worse. Village after village after village embarrasses itself with the crumbling facades of the long gone 19th century Welsh revival. It is as if the dragon had roared but the fiery embers were always destined to grow old, cold and forgotten. But why? Why could not the fire of Christ ignite Welsh culture beyond the immediate generation of those original (largely) Methodist apostles? Why is Wales now seemingly so neglectful of the faith of David, Non, Seiriol, Illtyd, Dyfrig, Gildas, Dwynwen, Melangell, Gwenfrewy, Winefride, Beuno, Asaph and countless others?

The same questions could and should be raised for England, Scotland and perhaps to a lesser extent Ireland, north and south. Why have the landmarks of sanctity in the lives of the Christian heroes of these lands been erased from the public mind, confined to the private realm of the dwindling faithful and the secular archives of the historian? Why has Christianity become disconnected from the culture and replaced by a secular mind more entertained by New Age fripperies and the gods of hedonism and individualism? As the Anglo-Catholic priest Fr. Eric Mascall once penned as a title to a book:- “Whatever happened to the Christian mind?”

The trouble is that the Orthodox know the answer but few seem to understand the question. We say, of course, that Britain has both forgotten the treasure (our Orthodox faith) and where she has buried it (in the distortions of Rome and Geneva). The incomprehension of the post-Orthodox Christian in the face of this answer is understandable for too many years have passed since the burying and the earthworks have now all but gone. The preachers of the Welsh Revival and all the other revivals of British Non-Conformity faced the problem of Christianity’s decline during the Industrial Revolution but they did not do their homework; they failed to look for the buried treasure but instead mistook fool’s gold for the real thing. They can’t be blamed for this. They were children of their time in revolt from a contaminated spiritual source, but sometimes in their confusion mistaking elements of its corruption for purity, its artifice for authenticity. The writing was on the wall no sooner than the wall had been built.

There are some Orthodox who say that British (or if you like, English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish) Orthodox Christianity is dead and buried and incapable of being revived. These claim that only through a fresh infusion of Orthodoxy with a very clear ��country of origin” sticker affixed will the real thing be recognised once more. I beg to disagree ... and most profoundly! It is no solution at all to point a lost soul to a foreign country just because he has got lost in his own. We need to need to repaint the signs; not have them repositioned in a new direction.
St. Arsenios of Paros, a Greek saint of the 19th century knew this full well. He said presciently ...

“When the Church in the British Isles begins to venerate her own Saints then the Church will grow.”
         St. Arsenios of Paros (+1877)
This is the remedy for the amnesia of the British. Let them see their own saints again ... not just in the churches (that they may never frequent) but in the countryside, in the cities, in the towns. We need to reconnect Christ and Culture in the Orthodox way. We need to roll back of the desert of secularism by touching the heart, by restoring the memory, by energising the will. We need to get out there and make Christ visible again.

Tuesday, 18 October 2011

St. Brigid of Kildaire

The Orthodox Celts

by Fr. Deacon John-Mark Titterington
St. Brigid
Orthodox Christians are bound by their own history to take a strong interest in Celtic Orthodox Christianity.  In recent years there has been renewed interest in society as a whole in what has become known as "Celtic spirituality".  Speaking generally, there seems to be a lack of interest today, however, in the other achievements of the Celts. Maybe this is because they did not build edifices which survived. After them came the Normans who erected enormous cathedrals and castles, as for example, at Durham, and this mark of permanence is reckoned to give them (the Normans) prestige in our times.
For the Celtic peoples, their "mark of permanence", if that is the right phrase, lies in people rather than buildings. Their great contribution to European culture and civilisation can be summed up in one word:- MISSION. They lived, and gave their lives, believing that "the Church is Mission". In no way were they confined to what is called the Celtic fringe of Cornwall, Wales and Ireland, and their missionary activities made them, in more ways than one, the founders of modern Europe.
The approach of the Celts to mission was thoroughly Orthodox. It began with a man, and sometimes a woman, experiencing a call from God; collecting some like-minded assistants and, following the guidelines laid down in the Gospels, just set off for distant lands with no change of tunic and knowing there was no possibility of a return to their homeland, preaching as they went.
The timing of these efforts was important. We heard last month of the break-up of the Roman Empire and how western Europe was left to defend itself. This it could not do and was soon over-run by pagan invaders who settled, in the case of our own country, like the Picts in the north; or the Angles in the north and east; the Saxons came into the south and the Jutes landed in Kent. One result of all these invasions was that the Christian church was pushed to the western fringes of our land which in the main, reverted to paganism and the history books often dub this period as "the Dark Ages".
But even barbarians settle down eventually and formed states, some larger than others, and helped by the residual Church and also by trade with other nations, became open to civilising influences. In this, by far the greater part was played by Celtic, largely Irish, saints and scholars.
The fifth century was a time of great upheaval on our shores but by the end of it, Ireland was largely Christian in a typically Orthodox way, which means that the bishop was a monk who lived in a monastery, where he was not usually the abbot, and so was himself subject to discipline. This organisation of the Church around monasteries, instead of around cathedrals, was to cause trouble and confusion later on, but at the time it suited God’s purpose admirably by providing a strong, well-educated and disciplined body of men (and women) who were able to go forth and make disciples of the nations of the earth. And that is just what they did.
We are familiar with the re-evangelisation of our country after Colum Cille, or Columba, had founded the monastery on Iona and from there, had sent the monks into Scotland and across the north of England to Lindisfarne, which they made into a Holy Island, and the next base for their mission activities. From there, this part of the country heard the Gospel again under the guidance of Saint Aidan (died 651) and further south, later on, had their turn through the efforts of the brothers Cedd and Chad. So much is well known to us and we do right to thank God that it was so. And also, we can rejoice that at the same time, the Roman mission under Saint Augustine landed in Kent and began the evangelisation of the south in 597.
But Scotland, together with the northern half of England and Wales, is only a very small part of the total outreach of the Celtic Church. Their wandering missionaries went as far afield as France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy. Some monks went north to the Faroes and Iceland, and others found their way as far east as Jerusalem and even to Kiev in Central Russia.
Usually, the route to Europe was through Iona and Lindisfarne. Sean McMahon describes them as going into "the pagan land of the Franks by coracle against the stream of north-flowing rivers. Consciously following Christ’s example, these bands of determined men took little apart from precious religious books and objects. Land journeys were on foot unless they fell in with trade caravans. They journeyed until they found a location they felt suitable, hoped for a grant of a little land from a not unfriendly chief and set up their holy ground to the glory of God and (though it would not have occurred to them) the honour of Ireland." (Rekindling of the Faith page 14).
What did they bring? First and foremost, the fullness of the Catholic Apostolic faith as hammered out at the Ecumenical Councils, albeit with some trappings which were passing out of use in Western Europe by the end of the period. These were, as we have noted, the centrality of the monastery with a monastic bishop; a different way of calculating the date of Pascha and a strange way for monks to tonsure themselves. These apart, they brought a firm faith and with it sound learning and also an artistic approach, especially to the production of the scriptures by hand, which is still breath-takingly beautiful.
We are today hearing a lot about the formation of a united Europe. The first conscious attempt to establish this could said to have taken place under the leadership of the King of the Franks, Charles the Great, or Charlemange, who was crowned by the Pope on Christmas day in the year 800. To quote Sean McMahon again:--
"Charlemange ruled most of western Europe and was so noted as a lawgiver, administrator, protector of the Church and promoter of education that his court at Aachen was the centre for an intellectual and artistic renaissance. He invited the greatest scholars of the day to take part in his work, the most notable being Alcuin, of York, and the Irishmen, Clement Scottus, Dicuil and Dungal" (ibid page 31).
It is interesting that even today there is a building called "the Scottish Church" in the centre of the Austrian city of Vienna. It was originally founded by Celtic missionaries in 1156 and dedicated to Our Lady. From it a daughter house was established in the Russian city of Kiev, but that was abandoned in 1241 due to the invasion of the Mongols.
This indicates the extent of the influence of the Celtic Christians across the length of Europe and shows how the ministry of these wandering monks, gradually, over a period of about six centuries, helped to change for the better, the religious and cultural life of Western Europe and so prepared the way for what is rashly called "the new learning" of Dante and Erasmus. And they have been blamed for opening the doors which led to the so-called Reformation five hundred years later. But that is another story.

St. Theodore of Tarsus and Canterbury

Theodore (602 – 19 September 690; sometimes known as Theodore of Tarsus or Theodore of Canterbury[1]) was the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury, best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury.
Theodore's life can be divided into the time before his arrival in Britain as Archbishop of Canterbury, and his archiepiscopate. Until recently, scholarship on Theodore had focused on only the latter period since it is attested in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English, and also in Stephen of Ripon's Vita Sancti Wilfrithi, whereas no source directly mentions Theodore's earlier activities. However, Michael Lapidge and Bernard Bischoff have reconstructed his earlier life based on a study of texts produced by his Canterbury School.

Early life
Theodore was of Byzantine Greek descent born in Tarsus in Cilicia, a Greek-speaking diocese of the Byzantine Empire.[2] Theodore's childhood experienced devastating wars between Byzantium and the Sassanid Empire, which resulted in the capture of Antioch, Damascus, and Jerusalem in 613-614. Tarsus was captured by Persian forces when Theodore was 11 or 12 years old. There is evidence that Theodore had experience of Persian culture.[3] It is most likely that he studied at Antioch, the historic home of a distinctive school of exegesis, of which he was a proponent.[4] Theodore also was familiar with Syrian culture, language and literature, and may even have traveled to Edessa.[5]
Though it was possible for a Greek to live under Persian rule, the Arab conquests, including Tarsus in 637, certainly drove Theodore from Tarsus; if he had not fled earlier, Theodore would have been 35 years old when he left his birthplace.[6] Following this, he studied in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, including the subjects of astronomy, ecclesiastical computus, astrology, medicine, Roman civil law, Greek rhetoric and philosophy, and the use of the horoscope.[7]
At some time before the 660s, Theodore had come west to Rome and was living with a community of Eastern monks, probably at the monastery of St. Anastasius.[8] At this time, in addition to his already profound Greek intellectual inheritance, he became learned in Latin literature, both sacred and secular.[9] The Synod of Whitby (664), having confirmed the decision in the Anglo-Saxon Church to follow Rome, in 667, when Theodore was 66, the see of Canterbury fell vacant. Wighard, the man chosen to fill the post unexpectedly died. Wighard had been sent to Pope Vitalian by Ecgberht, king of Kent, and Oswy, king of Northumbria, for consecration as archbishop. Following Wighard's death, Theodore was chosen upon the recommendation of Hadrian (later abbot of St. Peter's, Canterbury). Theodore was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury in Rome on 26 March 668, and sent to England with Hadrian, arriving on 27 May 669.

 Archbishop of Canterbury

Theodore conducted a survey of the English church, appointed various bishops to sees that had been vacant for some time,[10] and then called the Synod of Hertford to institute reforms concerning the proper celebration of Easter, episcopal authority, itinerant monks, the regular convening of subsequent synods, marriage and prohibitions of consanguinity, and others.[11] He also proposed dividing the large diocese of Northumbria into smaller sections, a policy which brought him into conflict with Bishop Wilfrid, whom Theodore himself had appointed to the See of York. Theodore deposed and expelled Wilfrid in 678, dividing his dioceses in the aftermath. The conflict with Wilfrid was not finally settled until 686–687.
In 679, Aelfwine, the brother of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, was killed in battle against the Mercians. Theodore's intervention prevented the escalation of the war and resulted in peace between the two kingdoms, with King Æthelred of Mercia paying weregild compensation for Aelfwine's death.[12]

 Canterbury School

Theodore and Hadrian established a school in Canterbury resulting in a "golden age" of Anglo-Saxon scholarship:[13]
They attracted a large number of students, into whose minds they poured the waters of wholesome knowledge day by day. In addition to instructing them in the Holy Scriptures, they also taught their pupils poetry, astronomy, and the calculation of the church calendar...Never had there been such happy times as these since the English settled Britain.
Theodore also taught sacred music,[13] introduced various texts, knowledge of Eastern saints, and may even have been responsible for the introduction of the Litany of the Saints, a major liturgical innovation, into the West.[14] Some of his thoughts are accessible in the Biblical Commentaries, notes compiled by his students at the Canterbury School.[15] Of immense interest is the text, recently attributed to him, called Laterculus Malalianus.[16] Overlooked for many years, it was rediscovered in the 1990s, and has since been shown to contain numerous interesting elements reflecting Theodore's trans-Mediterranean formation.[17]
Pupils from the school at Canterbury were sent out as Benedictine abbots in southern England, disseminating the curriculum of Theodore.[18]
Theodore called other synods, in September 680 at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, confirming English orthodoxy in the Monothelite controversy,[19] and circa 684 at Twyford, near Alnwick in Northumbria. Lastly, a penitential composed under his direction is still extant.
Theodore died in 690 at the remarkable age of 88, having held the archbishopric for twenty-two years, and was buried in Canterbury at Saint Peter's church.


Theodore is venerated as a saint on September 19 in the Church of England, Episcopal Church (USA), and Eastern Orthodox churches. He is also recorded on this day in the Roman Martyrology. Canterbury also recognizes a feast of his ordination on 26 March.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Farmer 2004, pp. 496–497.
  2. ^ Bunson 2004, p. 881; Bowle 1979, p. 160; Bowle 1971, p. 41; Ramsey 1962, p. 2; Johnson & Zabel 1959, p. 403.
  3. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 8–9.
  4. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", p. 4.
  5. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 7–8.
  6. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", p. 10.
  7. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 17-18.
  8. ^ Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 21–22.
  9. ^ Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.1.
  10. ^ Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.2 (Appointments: Bisi to East Anglia, Aelfric Putta to Rochester, Hlothhere to Wessex, and Ceadda after reconsecration to Mercia).
  11. ^ Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.5 (Canons of Hertford).
  12. ^ Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.21.
  13. ^ a b Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.2.
  14. ^ Bischoff & Lapidge 1994, p. 172.
  15. ^ Bischoff & Lapidge 1994.
  16. ^ Stevenson 1995.
  17. ^ Siemens 2007, pp. 18–28.
  18. ^ Cantor 1993, p. 164.
  19. ^ Collier & Barham 1840, p. 250.


St. Theodore of Tarsus and Canterbury is the patron saint of the Antiochian Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom and Ireland; that is of the Deanery and the Cathedral parish of St. George in London.  As a "son of Antioch" coming from Tarsus, the saint is notable for putting the organisation and life of the Church in these isles on a proper footing in the 7th Century.  His contribution and legacy has been immense.  He remains an inspirational figure for the Church's mission today.
This Icon (above) from Aidan Hart Icons
St. Theodore Icon 3
St. Theodore Icon 2

Monday, 17 October 2011

The Orthodox Saxons

by Fr. Gregory Hallam

St. Edward, King and Passion-bearer
The recovery of the Saxon, that is, broadly speaking, the Old English Church in the minds of the contemporary English is a vital task. In so far as the English once found their place within a religious and social pluralism that included the Celts then perhaps we should be optimistic about the recovery of an English identity within contemporary Britain. No one bats an eye at the Scots, Irish or Welsh recovering their identities. This is much praised but not so, unfortunately, with England. Maybe this is because England is associated in the minds of the politically correct with the oppressor. If there is an oppressor to be reckoned with here it is surely William the Conqueror who put an end to the golden age of English culture. So complete is the propaganda associated with the Conquest that no one really thinks that anything worthwhile existed before William breathed fire through the land nearly 1000 years ago. The Normans brought the Dark Ages and then induced everyone to believe that their reign was "light" in comparison with the so-called "Dark Ages" that had gone before.
It is difficult to define the English Church since "England" really consisted of many different kingdoms, races and peoples. Many understand the word "English" to be coterminous with the Anglo-Saxon culture and this is fair to a point. So how did these Germanic and Danish peoples, the Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes and others become Christians?
Well, we should not rob St. Augustine of Canterbury of his fare share of this work. Here was an Orthodox Christian bishop who with a small band of 40 monks stayed 7 years at the turn of the 7th Century and converted King Ethelbert and His Kingdom in Kent to the Faith of the Apostles. The names of Augustine, Pope Gregory the Great who sent him, and the Apostles Peter and Paul were ever to be revered by the English but no less so than the Celtic missionaries who had evangelised the North of England and lowland Scotland (as is now) from the West. The English Church had such a profusion of saints in the 400 years before the Schism that it’s difficult now to adjust our expectations of England today to this high water mark.
Orthodoxy is not, however, concerned to recover some sort of lost racial consciousness, a place "forever England." That would be to violate the vision of our forefathers whom God used as architects of the Kingdom of God, a nation that knows no boundaries. Pre-eminent among these "English" fathers for example is St. Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, (668-690), a Greek pastor who lovingly welded the Celtic and Anglo Saxon Orthodoxy of many scattered kingdoms into a truly united Church for all races under Christ. His was a true Orthodox pluralism not based on English national identity, (for such a thing did not exist), but on the commonwealth of Heaven. England, like Zion, is not a nation, she is an attitude of mind, a presence in the heart, a rustle of wind amongst the people, the trace of the Holy Spirit. When the Normans came under a new and confusing papal banner and laid waste to England’s innocence at Hastings and thereafter, they did not destroy England, but they did subvert its national life, replacing the flowers of Eden with the thorns of efficiency and grandeur. Much of that legacy endures today in the British establishment.
For a while, perhaps, we have been seduced by the pompous grandeur of a "greater" Britain. The Scots, the Irish and the Welsh won’t put up with it anymore. Isn’t it about time that the English didn’t either? But, we should be aware. We must not play the Norman mentality at its own game. Orthodox England will not be rebuilt by her politicians, but, as ever before, by her saints. We by the mercy of God, have been called to play our part in this recovery of the heart of England which is Christ and the land which, according to our tradition, is Mary’s dowry. Let us be worthy of such a high calling. Sometime, perhaps in the far distant future, or perhaps next year, Orthodox England will live again. God knows. For us it is sufficient to sing and to work; to love and to pray. May Christ our God have mercy on our souls, Amen!

Sunday, 9 October 2011

A short history of Orthodoxe Church in the British Islands

“The church in the British Islands will begin to grow, only when it begins to honor her own Saints”
(Saint Arsenios of Paros † 1877).
The orthodoxe Faith, as existed from roughly 37 A.D. and up to the Big Schism in 1054 A.D.

The church of Wales, England, Scotland, Kornoyale, Brittany and Ireland at the 1st millenium of Christianity
The orthodoxe Faith, as existed from roughly 37 A.D. and up to the Big Schism in 1054 A.D.

The first Roman invasion in the Britain began with the arrival of July Caessar 55 B.C. After 90 years of peace, the Britishes rose again, and July Caessar sent army with governor Plotius so that he conquers the recently insurgents Britishes, 43 A.D. The Romen never did not conquer completely the British Islands - while this was not their intention, did not want ensures France (Gaul). The later period of Roman governing in the Britain can be characterized as rather peaceful, with Romen and Roman-British citizens and in retirement officers of army they are shared the administration as a mature and extremely civilized medium-superior social order. Even if the administration was applied with the Latin language, the Celtic language remained sovereign in the all country.

At the delivery of Church, the Christianity was transported by persons of region of Efesos, and had been installed in the British Islands up to 45 A.D. This information is strengthened somehow by the fact that the Church in the British Islands supported that her initial Divine Operation was that of Saint Ioannis, which as we know lived in [Efesos] in his following years. Saint Gildas the Wise man (monk from the Wales, student of Saint Illtyd, † 512 A.D.) supported in his “History” that the Christianity came in the Britain at the last year of Tiverios Ceassar, that is to say 37 A.D.

It has particular interest we mark that the antiquity of British Church had been confirmed indubitably by five Popish sessions: her session Pisa (1409), the session of Konstanti (1417), the session of Sens (1418), the session of Sienna (1424) and the session of Basileia (1413). And this five sessions fixed that the Church in the British Islands is the older Church of national, Although that it would be politically more interest for pοpes him to ignore this fact, since they could have offended France and Spain, that season were inexperiencedly more powerful than England. We appear therefore reason to suppose that the recorded proofs in favor the antiquity of Church in the British Islands should be overwhelmingly many.

Unfortunately, big part of these proofs has been lost, having is destroyed at the dissolution by Errik the 8 monasteries and the scatering and the destruction of their libraries, and then, but also at the duration of Civilian War.
Saint Aristovoulos, one from the Seventy Apostles that are reported in At Loukas Gospel (10: 1), who slept roughly 90 A.D., was, as Bishop Britain, one from the precocious organizers of Christianity in the Celts in Britony and the Britain, according to Dorotheos of Tyros. The orthodoxe Church considers him “Apostle of Britain” and him has given this title. In this (and in other, with him) we owe the beginnings of Church in the British Islands, round the 37-45 A.D.

The newer archeology proposes that the remains of ancienter building of church - that it has been recognized as such with certainty it is dated round 140 A.D. We know also for the existence of domestic Christian ruins of older season, in the South of Britain. Later we find a recording for the leader of department of Southerner Wales-western England of - Saint Lucan, which brought Saint Dyfan (often with the Latin name as Damian) and Saint Fagan (often with the Latin name as Fugatius) in his region, round the 160-180 A.D. Afterwards we have Saint Mydwyn and the Bishop Saint Elvan - and their two Britishes - the same precisely period. Saint Elvan is said that it slept in the city Glastonbury round 195 A.D.

The Roman historian [Tertyllianos] in his text that was written round 208 A.D. reports that the Church in the Britain had reached in regions that still had not been conquered by the Roman Army, something that says to us that the Church had advanced more beyond the Roman possessions and that sure him they considered domestic, as of course they show also the work of Saint Lucan. [Origenis], writing thirty years later, also records the existence of Church in the Britain.

Saint Dyfan († 190 A.D.) is considered the first Christian Witness of British Islands (from where also the name of city Merthyr Dyfan of southernly city Cardiff in the Wales). The first recorded Christian Witnesses in England were: the popular Saint Alban, the Bishop Stefanos of London, the Bishop Sokratis of York, the Bishop Argulius of London, the Bishop [Amfivalos] of LLandaff, the Bishop Nikolaos of Penrhyn, the Bishop Melior of Carlisle, as well as other, during 300-304 A.D.

Konstantinos, his son Konstantinos [A]' (Green) and [Flavia] Helen (according to Saint Amvrosios she was hotel keeper, and according to Chesterton and later historians he was very probably also British) went with his father from Boulogne to York. There, 306 A.D., died his father and Konstantinos were nominated August - leader of Roman Empire - in York. In due time became acquaintance in the History as Imperator Konstantinos Big. Konstantinos, with Licenius they published the said Decree Milan on the recognition of Christianity.

314 A.D. the Bishop of Eborius (York), the Bishop Restitutus of London and the Bishop [Adelfios] of Caerleon and a big escort had assisted in the Session of Arles.
Saint Athanassios declares specifically that the British Church subscribed her acceptance in the decisions of First Oecumenical Session that took place in Nice the 325.
Again, the 359, British Bishops assisted in the Session of Rimini. The archaeological proofs for this period show that the chapels in Lullingstone and Silchester are dated from roughly the 345.

With few reasons, the Church of they were not simply good installed to a great extent British Islands up to this period, but have also himself Saint Ioannis Chrysostomos it testifies that it was also completely Orthodoxe in her teaching. (Chrysostomi Orat. ' Qeos Cristos)
Very at an early date afterwards the arrival of monasticism from Egypt in the Eastern Empire, it was presented also in the British Church and very fast became exceptionally popular. Of course, the British Church from the 5th century and afterwards, was organized in strictly monastic lines - very probably in bigger degree than other departments of Church. Hundreds monasteries and hermitages - small and big - expanded in the all British Islands. The monastic life practiced big attraction in the mystic tendency Celtic thoughtful.

At the duration of 4th century, the Eastern Britain began to suffer raids from [Saxones] pirates. Rome was found in the need to be defended France and the center of Roman Empire from invaders of north. It could not more deal with the provinces of Britain, and when [Alarichos] conquered Rome 410 A.D., the flow of soldiers and governors to the Britain it was interrupted completely. The bigger part of Britain now devolved to local governing, to a great degree according to each Head of Family or “King”.

This brings to us in the period that could comfortably be described as period of Three Dukes (Dux Bellorum), or Generals (that likely brought the Celtic title Pendragon), which were head of various combinations constituted from Celtic Families. First from these was Vortigern, who managed from the central Wales and Gloucester from the 425 roughly and up to the 457. Afterwards Duke Vortigern came Duke Emrys. The columnist Saint Gildas reports that led barracks from the 460 up to the means of decade the 480. It appears that Arthur took the place of that roughly in the means to the end of decade the 480. Columnist-priest Nennus marks that Arthur brought on his Picture of Virgin Maria in the Battle of river Bassas, and a Picture of Crucifixion on three entire days at the duration of his Battle Terms Badon (Castle Liddington) the 516.

At the period of Three Dukes, the Church was profited biggest from the then urban safety. The season of Emrys, the Saint German, bishop of Auxerre, visited the Britain two times, advising them British Bishops to found schools for candidates of ordination, and ensuring the exile minimal remaining of heretics (Pelagians) . He led a Christian army in a bloodless apparently victory against the Piktes and Saxones in the north in 431. It is recorded that he preached very effective in Glastonbury during its second visit in 447. Since that time, monasteries mostly now headed by the Church.

397 Saint Ninian founded the monastery of Whitehorn in the province Galloway and it began to declare in their [Piktes] and their [Saxones]. This, with a abundance from smaller cells of hermits and half-cenobitic monks, signaled the beginning of renewal in the life of Church in the British Islands.
This period, the Church him they managed for the most part the provincial monasteries, where the Abbot managed the Church. To be likely (a big monastery) it had certain Bishops-assistant, that had been given to them the rank of Bishop because recognition of their saint way of their life. The bishop made the ordinations, made the annointments and Consecrated, while the Abbot managed. In little time, the places of Abbot and Managing Bishop began to link themselves. Globally, I prevailed atmosphere she was that of of saint way of life various monastic bishops, abbots and hermits. The monasteries were administrative, educative and missionary centres of Church. From these big monastic centres the Church of British Islands had later - at the first millenium it dispatches her eminent monks in distant parts, as: Germany, Kiev and Scandinavia. We can take a idea of quality of leaders of Church this period, from the following indicative representatives:

Year 400 roughly, the Deacon Calporans of (current) province Cumberland, the same son of Priest, had a son named Patrick. Round the 410, Patrick abducted Irish invaders pirates and took him in Ireland as slave. After six years it escaped and it resorted to France where it entered in monastery and was educated in order to becomes priest. Returned in his family near the region of Solway of Firth round the 426 and became his ordination as Bishop the 432 when it was installed finally in Ireland. Saint Patrick managed as monkof Armagh the next thirty years, founding a lot of monasteries and building the Church of Ireland up to his death ([koimisis]) the 464.

Up to the 450-500 A.D. they existed round the 1000-1500 big monasteries-member, in the Wales and more westwards. That season, the Church of British Islands tended it sees the Patriarchate in Jerusalem as center of Church, since it had been broken away to a great degree from the Church of Rome (if she was never connected). While the teaching of British Church are certified sufficiently as absolutely Orthodoxe (after the sect of [Pelagianismos] did not enjoy despite a transitory popularity in the Britain and that appears had been eliminated completely up to the decade the 420-439), the system of Ecclesiastical administration and the general atmosphere they differed perceptibly from the equivalents of Church of Rome.

Given birth hardly afterwards the change of century, Illtyd became courtier and minister in the Wales. It abandoned that life and become a monk and went to stay at the monastery in Llancarvan under the guidance of the abbot of the monastery, St. Cadoc. Later, Saint Illtyd left from Llancarvan and it went it leads the big Abbey of Llantwit (Llanilltyd) that later it became known as “the house of Saints” because it elected so much a lot of leaders of Church. Saint Illtyd slept 470 his and memory is honoured 6 November.
Saint David (in the local language Dewi Sant) was born early in the 5th century, the Hen Vynyw educated and trained for the priesthood for ten years down the scribe Paulinus . It founded the extremely ascetic Abbey of Menevia. Saint David as Abbot became acquaintance for the work of alms, his extreme asceticism and his habit to make innumerable penitences. The session of Brevi elected him Archbishop and as his seat was fixed Menevia (today Saint. David).

The history says to us that certain of the most powerful leaders of British Church (Saint David, Archbishop of Menevia, Saint Padarn, Bishop of Avranches and Saint Teilo, then Archbishop of Menevia) made obeisance to the Patriarch of Jerusalem in an apparently deliberate preference rather than any other church leaders. It is likely somebodies indeed they had received their rank from the Patriarch of Jerusalem. In the Celtic thoughtful, center of Church it was the place of ministration of Christ. Saint David is said that it had also travelled in other Celtic countries, and we have recorded reports of his presence in Cornwall and Brittany 547-548. His influence was enormous in the all territory of British Islands, and in this was owed big part of conjunction of Church and the maintenance of lot and population in strict discipline. Saint David slept the 601, and his Feast is national feast of Wales, 1 March.
Saint Columcille was given birth the 521 in Gartan. It travelled with certain monks in Iona of Scotland, where it founded the eminent monastery of Iona, on a island on a coast of Atlantic. There it lived, alternately in his [erimitiko] cell and managing the Abbey. It sent his monks to declare in the population. From his Abbot-successor, Saint Adamnan, we have a biography that says to us descriptive for a tall man with very powerful personality, which made marvels at the duration of his life.

Columcille they is the one that built the Monastery of Iona and founded auxiliary monasteries in Hinba, Maglunge and Diuni. Three rescued poems they are attributed in this, included the poem “Altus Prosator” on the subject the other life and the Final Crisis. It gave big attention in the education of nuns, from which certain were veered from their English-[Saxones] invaders of Eastern Britain. Thanks to this veered himself the king of Piktes Bude, and the 574, crowned the king Aiden of Dalriada. Columcille was Bishop with big influence in Scotland and in Ireland, as well as in entire the notherner England, up to the his death ([koimisi]), little before the Mattins, 9 June, 597.

After the Battle of Mount Badon, the British could no longer maintain their territories. The Saxons migrated increasingly from Europe, filling the Saxon coast and moving west. They founded a number of pagan south Basel parties, and northwest of what is now England.

597 A.D. the Patriarchate of Rome decided starts something where it can be described only as ecclesiastical invasion in the British Islands. This took the form of uninvited “mission” that were inaugurated by Saint Augustin in Canterbury, despite the fact that it found the Bishop Liuthard and the church of Saint Martin to exist already there, in Canterbury. The bishop Liuthard had narrow relations with the courtyard of King Ethelbert which can be Christian the himself, however the Queen Bertha she was. Unabashed from it before exists for a long time installed Church in the British Islands, Augustin continued working between not-Christian Saxons intruders that lived in Kent.

Statements that Augustin was Primus of Britain are unreliable, since the Church in the British Islands had already the Primus of Her - successor Saint David, (which slept roughly 20 years before the arrival of Augustin). The church in the British Islands had roughly 120 bishops and many thousands Priests, Monks and Nuns. Augustin tried he protests for the prestige of Priest Grigorios Big, but his efforts they to a great degree did not have success, more beyond the south-eastern corner of island, where he had worked to veer their Saxons intruders.

So that are untied certain differences between the Church in the British Islands and the Roman mission that invaded, was convened session the 664 in Whitby of province Yorkshire, so that is incorporated officially the Celtic Church with the Roman “mission” in a Church, even if the Celtic department continued his own customs, in their own region of Britain. Because this fusion was this modern with big scale change of Anglosaxon intruders of Eastern England, continuing Church was kelt-Anglosaxon in her texture, and it began to engage the character and the two seces. He was a integral department of Orthodoxe Catholic Church, and, since the Papacy that season well-good had not been developed with the significance that today him we know, this Church of British Islands it remained Local Church, inside the oecumenical Orthodoxe Catholic of Church.
Year 666, Saint Theodore of Tarsus, Greek Monk, was named in the Seat of Canterbury. This reached there the 669 in the age the 67 and it began a twenty year old bishopric trying it convinces the British Bishops to accept him for Archbishop. Theodore found Rome opposite with certain from his decisions, obviously in his disagreements with Saint Wilfrid. In the end, while it made many in order to is organized the Church in the British Islands - so much divided from the Session of Whitby - his force extended itself only in the Anglosaxon department of country. Theodore inaugurated line of Holy Sessions, beginning with that of Hertford the 672, where were agreed the eminent ten decisions, parallel in value with the Rules of Session of Chalkidon. The second Session in Hatfield produced a statement of Orthodoxy that was relative with the conflict of Monothelitismos.

In the end of 7th century, Saint Wilfrid, now already Bishop of York, asked from the Patriarch of Rome to intervene in his conflict with Saint Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury.
When the question was placed front Witenagamot (the Royal Parliament), the members (Vice-mayors, Attachés of Feudal lords and Bishops) rejected the decision of Priest. Did Witenagamot say, substantially, “Who is this Priest and what they are his these decisions? Which relation they have these with us, or we with them? ” As answer, they burned the Popish parchment and they put Wilfrid in the prison, because it dared it asks help from a intruder.
The 747, this beginning [xanatethike] as subject - and [ex]' equal blatantly. Had become proposal in Witenagamot are referred the difficult questions in the Bishop of Rome, as first between equal. Witenagamot, however, declared that it would be subjugated only in the jurisdiction of British Archbishop.

The period of said “Heptarchy” was extended from 600 up to roughly the 850 and it owes her name in the supremacy of new kingdoms of Saxons - Kent, Wessex, Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex and Sussex - that it is said today England. It was not a politically constant period, with continuous fights for supremacy between this kingdoms, that asked help from the any allies could assemble. In the beginning of period, Kent was the absolute souvereign of Essex and Sussex and perhaps the most powerful kingdom in the Britain. However at the 6th century, the kingdom of Northumbria began to be sovereign. Northumbria was constituted by two departments, included the bigger part of modern province Yorkshire. Under the King Edwin, was incorporated the kingdom of Saxons of Berenice, which in the beginning was not Christian. At an early date however it was veered. In the northern department of kingdom Edwin built Edwins Burgh (=Edinburgh) in the Trick of Forth.
The Edwin was killed in battle with the joint armies of pagan kingdom of Mercia and the Christian Kingdom of Wales in 632. The brothers Oswald and Oswy had, at kingdom of Edwin, live in the Monastery of Iona. With the death of Edwin, Oswald led a army of Northumbria against Anglosaxons and became King of Northumbria. 634 Saint Aidan, then invitation of King Oswald, came from the Monastery of Iona, in order to it installs his Seat in Lindisfarne, as Bishop of all Northumbria. Here it founded his monastery, which manned with a team of nuns that came with him from Iona. Oswald was murdered in battle the 642 and later was nominated Saint from the Church.


Before his death, King Penda acknowledged missionaries monks of St. Aidan in Mercia, thus paving the way for the conversion of this kingdom Saxony. His son received the Baptism and married a Christian Princess. For most of the next century the Kingdom of Mercia, who crossed the province area south of the River Humber to the Thames and the borders of Wales to the Gulf Wash, was growing. The supremacy of Mercia culminated the reign of King Offa (757-796).

King Offa is the first King who had the status of any King of England. Dealing with the youngest of European contemporary, the Emperor Charlemagne as an equal, signing him to a trade agreement 796, and recorded that Charlemagne and consider him a prominent commander.
The 850-851 pagan Danish invaders, who had for some time content itself with summer raids, decided to spend the winter in the Isle of Thanet in the south. This was essentially the beginning of the terrible invasion of the Danes, which would give the Church so many martyrs, especially in the year 870. The King Alfred finally defeated the Danes and consolidated his rule, keeping the peace until the Danes xanaepitethikan from France the 892. Eventually he led the victory to them in 896-897.

Offa and Alfred were - rightfully - legislators and scholars, Christian Kings that built a educational system and that in general encouraged the learning and the extension of Church.
Orthodoxy of Church in the British Islands ceased, with the import of popish bishops after the Battle in Hastings in October 1066, where Norman Duke William, financed from the separatist henceforth Papacy, invaded in the Britain.